The sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF6) is an electronegative gas and has a strong tendency to absorb free electrons. The contacts of the breaker are opened in a high-pressure flow sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas and an arc is struck between them. The gas captures the conducting free electrons in the arc to form relatively immobile negative ions. This loss of conducting electrons in the arc quickly builds up enough insulation strength to extinguish the arc.
Comparing to other circuit breaker types, the SF6 circuit breakers have been found to be very effective for high power and high voltage service.
SF6 CBs are available for all voltages ranging from 144 to 765 kV or even above. Continuous currents up to 8000 A, and symmetrical interrupting ratings up to 63 kA at 765 kV and 80 kA at 230 kV.
Construction of SF6 Circuit Breaker
A sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) circuit breaker consists of fixed and moving contacts enclosed in a chamber.
The chamber is called the arc interruption chamber which contains the SF6 gas. This chamber is connected to sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas reservoir. A valve mechanism is there to permit the gas to the arc interruption chamber.
When the contacts of breaker are opened, the valve mechanism permits a high-pressure sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas from the reservoir to flow towards the arc interruption chamber.
The fixed contact is a hollow cylindrical current carrying contact fitted with an arcing horn. The moving contact is also a hollow cylinder with rectangular holes in the sides.
The holes permit the sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF6) gas to let out through them after flowing along and across the arc.
The tips of fixed contact, moving contact, and arcing horn are coated with a copper-tungsten arc-resistant material.
Since SF6 gas is costly, it is reconditioned and reclaimed using the suitable auxiliary system after each operation of the breaker.
Working of SF6 CB
The working of an SF6 circuit breaker is similar to the working of a normal circuit breaker we discussed in previous articles.
In the closed position of the breaker, the contacts remain surrounded by sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF6) gas at a pressure of about 2.8 kg/cm2.
When the breaker operates, the moving contact is pulled apart and an arc is struck between the contacts. (For more details visit arcing phenomenon in a circuit breaker.)
The movement of the moving contact is synchronized with the opening of a valve. The valve permits sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF6) gas at 14 kg/cm2 pressure from the reservoir to the arc interruption chamber.
The high-pressure flow of sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF6) rapidly absorbs the free electrons in the arc path. It forms immobile negative ions which are ineffective as charge carriers.
The result is that the medium between the contacts quickly builds up high dielectric strength and causes the extinction of the arc.
After the breaker operation (i.e. after arc extinction in circuit breaker), the valve is closed by the action of a set of springs.
SF6 CB Practical Working Animation
The practical opening and closing of an SF6 circuit breaker are animated in this video.
Types of SF6 Circuit Breaker
The sf6 circuit breaker has been developed by several manufacturers and several designs have emerged. The types of sf6 circuit breakers can be broadly identified as
- Double pressure Type
- Single Pressure Puffer Type
In double pressure type sf6 circuit breaker, the gas from the high-pressure system is released into the low-pressure system through a nozzle, during the arc extinction processes. This design has become obsolete.
In single pressure type sf6 circuit breaker, the sf6 gas is compressed by the moving cylinder system and is released through a nozzle while extinguishing the arc. This design is most popular over a wide range of voltages from 13.6 kV to 760 kV.
SF6 Circuit Breaker Designs
In both the double pressure and single pressure types, SF6 CBs are of either the dead tank design or live tank design.
The dead tank design is for outdoor installations and live tank (or modular design) is for indoor installations. Increasingly dead tank breakers are integrated into SF6 insulated substations for indoor or outdoor installations.
The SF6 Circuit Breakers are available as in following designs.
- live tank circuit breaker
- dead tank circuit breaker
- grounded tank designs.
The live tank means the interruption happens in an enclosure that is at line potential. Such SF6 CB has an interrupter chamber that is mounted on insulators and is at line potential. An interrupter with such a modular design can be connected in series to operate at higher voltage levels.
The dead tank means that interruption takes place in a grounded enclosure. Current Transformers are located on both sides of the break (i.e., interrupter contacts). In such circuit breakers, the interruption maintenance takes place at ground level. And its seismic withstand is better than circuit breakers with the live tank designs.
However, they require more insulating gas in order to provide the proper amount of insulation between the interrupter and the grounded tank enclosure. The modular dead tank CB has been specially developed for integration of SF6 insulated substation systems.
The grounded tank means that interruption happens in an enclosure that is partially at line potential and partially at ground potential. The evolution of the grounded tank CB design is the result of installing a live tank CB interrupter into a dead tank CB design.
Advantages and Disadvantages of SF6 Gas
Due, to the superior arc quenching properties of sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF6) gas, the sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF6) circuit breakers have many advantages over oil circuit breaker and air blast circuit breakers. Some of them are listed below :
- Due to the superior arc quenching property of sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF6), such circuit breakers have very short arcing time. They are used in Gas Insulated Substations.
- Since the dielectric strength of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas is 2 to 3 times that operation due unlike of air, such breakers can interrupt much larger currents.
- The sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF6) circuit breaker gives noiseless operation due it’s closed gas circuit and no exhaust to atmosphere, unlike the air blast circuit breaker.
- The compact design of SF6 gas CBs substantially reduces space requirements and building installation costs.
- The SF6 gas circuit breakers can handle all known switching phenomena.
- SF6 gas circuit breakers perfectly can adapt to environmental requirements. They have completely enclosed gas system that eliminates any exhaust during switching operations.
- Contact separation is minimum in SF6 gas circuit breakers due to dielectric strength provided by the high-pressure SF6.
In general, the only disadvantage of the SF6 Circuit Breakers is their relatively high costs. The cost has been somewhat coming down in recent years.
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