An important factor in the design and operation of electrical machines is the relation between the life of the insulation and operating temperature of the machine. Therefore, temperature rise resulting from the losses is a determining factor in the rating of a machine.

There are two type of losses in a transformer;

- Copper Losses
- Iron Losses or Core Losses or Insulation Losses

* Copper losses* ( I²R) are variable losses which

*passing through transformer windings while*

__depends on Current__*or Core Losses or Insulation Losses*

__Iron Losses__

__depends on Voltage.__We know that copper loss in a transformer depends on current and iron loss depends on voltage. Therefore, the total loss in a transformer depends on the volt-ampere product only and not on the phase angle between voltage and current i.e., it is independent of load power factor.

So the transformer is designed for rated voltage (iron loss) and rated current (copper loss). We can’t predict the power factor while designing the machine, because power factor depends upon the load which varies time to time.

When a manufacturer makes a transformer, UPS etc., they have no idea of the type of load that will be used & consequently they can only rate the device according to its

*maximum current output*that the conductors can safely carry (at unity Power Factor) & the

*insulation rating*of the conductors (voltage & temperature).

That’s why the Transformer Rating may be expressed in kVA, Not in kW.

Related: Why Current Transformer (CT) Seconday Should not be Open ?

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